Multiple Sclerosis is a demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, caused by breakage in the myelin sheath (a thin layer covering the axons of the neuron). Although there are many theories, the cause of this debilitating disease is not yet fully known. It can be diagnosed by symptomatology, MRI findings, Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) analysis, and Visual Evoked Response (VER).
The manifestations of this disease vary depending on the site of the lesion and the extent of damage. Common symptoms include visual impairment (demyelination of the optic nerve), weakness in the limbs, dizzy spells, various sensory symptoms, and shooting pain in the spine.
While there are several modes of treatment available — such as steroids, interferons, and copolymer — there is no cure for multiple sclerosis. However, stem cell therapy has been proven to significantly reduce the lesion load (the number of damaged areas) and deliver effective results.